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Prevalence of Healthcare-Associated Infections among the pediatric patients admitted at Philippine General Hospital, 2011-2014

Journal 2015 Vol.16 No.1
Edilberto B. Garcia, MD, MScPH, Sarah R. Makalinaw, MD, Ma. Lourdes Bernadeth V. Manipon, RN, MSN
Healthcare-associated infection, nosocomial infections, infection control program, Pseudomonas infection, Klebsiella infection.
Introduction: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) continue to be a major public health concern throughout the world particularly in developing countries wherein prevalence rates range from 5.7%-19.1%.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of HAIs among pediatric patients admitted at Philippine General Hospital and to describe the trends of annual prevalence of HAIs in relation to infection control programs implemented.

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted at the 145-bed capacity wards and intensive care units of the Department of Pediatrics, Philippine General Hospital (PGH) from January 2011 to December 2014 wherein HAI records from the database of the Section of Infectious and Tropical Disease in Pediatrics (INTROP) were reviewed. The following data were collected and encoded: (1) number of patients admitted in the different areas: Pediatric wards (Ward 9 and Ward 11), PICU and NICU; (2) number of patients who developed HAIs; and (3) microbial isolates, sites and antibiotic susceptibility results. Trends of yearly prevalence of HAIs in relation to infection programs implemented were determined, and the microbial isolates and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns were described.

Results: Among 30,032 pediatric patients at risk for HAIs and admitted from January 2011 to December 2014, the prevalence of HAI was 11.37%. There was a decreasing trend in the yearly HAI rates from 2011 to 2014 which coincided with implementation of infection control programs and hiring of a part-time infection control nurse in 2012. The prevalence of HAIs was highest at the PICU (15.17%- 27.81%) followed by the two Pediatric wards, ward 9 (9.03%-19.87%) and ward 11(8.75%-14.76%) and lowest at the NICU (7.52%-9.44%). Top isolates were Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Pseudomonas organisms were still sensitive to Ceftazidime, and Klebsiella to Meropenem.

Conclusion: The overall HAI prevalence during the 4-year study period was 11.37% (9.14% - 13.65%) comparable to those seen in developing countries. There was a decreasing trend of prevalence annually that coincided with the implementation of various infection control programs and the hiring of a part-time infection control nurse. The microbial isolates obtained vary per area but overall the same organisms were isolated during the study periods which were susceptible to the empiric treatment given.

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Cecilia Maramba-Lazarte, MD, MScID

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Elizabeth Gallardo, MD
Jonathan Lim, MD
Xenia Cathrine Fabay , MD
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